Definition of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus 
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of hyperglycemia due to defective insulin secretion insulin action or both. Chronic hyperglycaemia is associated with significant long term complications including damages, dysfunction and failure or various organs especially the kidneys’ eyes and nerves and is associated with markedly increased risk or cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

Types  of  Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes: " A chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin "Formerly known as insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Occurs as a result of beta cell destruction, usually leading to absolute insulin deficiency. Individuals are prone to diabetic ketoacidosis, are usually lean and complain of weight loss, polyuria, polydipsia and fatigue at time of diagnosis. Tends to occur in younger people, under age 40, but can occur at any age. Include cases due to an autoimmune process or other unknown aetiology.

Type 2 Diabetes:"A chronic condition that affects the way the body processes blood sugar (glucose)."Formerly known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus )NIDDM), a misnomer because some patients with this type of diabetes do require insulin therapy. Occurs as a result of a range of defects from predominant insulin resistance with relative insulin deficiency to a predominant secretory defect with or without insulin resistance. Individuals are often obese but can be lean.Many newly diagnosed patients are asymptomatic, but may present with polydipsia, polyuria and polyphagia. Ketoacidosis is usually a sign of advanced disease but is relatively uncommon. Tends to occur in older people over 40 but can occur at younger age especially in certain ethnic groups such as blacks Hispanics.

Gestational Diabetes:"A form of high blood sugar affecting pregnant women."Diabetes that is associated with glucose intolerance with onset
or first recognitions during pregnancy.

Prediabetes:"A condition in which blood sugar is high, but not high enough to be type 2 diabetes." It is usually associated with obesity, dyslipidaemia and high blood pressure. Individuals with prediabetes have increase risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease 

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